Archaeoglobus profundus

Taxonomic classification:

Domain: Archaea

Phylum: Euryarchaeota

Class: Archaeoglobi

Order: Archaeoglobales

Family: Archaeoglobaceae

Genus: Archaeoglobus

Species: A. profundus [32]

Figure 14: Archaeoglobus profundus SEM, Magnification 5000x   

Why does this organism belong in this Domain?

           Archaeoglobus profundus are unicellular prokaryotes. [33] The metabolism  uses sulfur  as their energy source. Sulfur is an inorganic substance.  Since this is the compound that provides energy to the organism, therefore this organism is considered a lithotroph, with the subcategory of heterotrophs because Archaeoglobus profundus require acetate and carbon dioxide for cell respiration. These characteristics can be found in any Archaea cell. An Archaea cell is unicellular and a prokaryotic. One of the types of metabolism an Archaea cell is a lithotroph. Lithotrophs take their energy from inorganic substances and also from carbon fixations. [2] These characteristics are not only for an Archaea cell but also can be found for Bacteria cells. However, Archaeoglobus profundus has a unique gene sequence which shows the presence of methanogenesis. This sequence would be found in other methanogen organisms. Methanogen organisms can only be found in the Domain Archaea. [35] In addition, only Archaea organisms can be found in extreme environments because they are the only organisms that learned how to adapt to this kind of environment. Bacteria cells would not be able to survive this kind of environment. [17] This unicellular organism is found in extreme conditions like hot springs, oil wells, and hydrothermal vents. [34] Another characteristic of the Archaeoglobus profundus that categorizes it in only this Domain Archaea is gene duplication. Even though the genes have duplicates, it does not mean in this organism that the proteins produced will be duplicates. This characteristic of the organism proves that Archaeoglobus profundus has metabolic differentiation. This metabolic differentiation that the organism uses to obtain energy, especially with recycled carbon fixations and fatty acids, can only be found in organisms found in the Domain Archaea. [35] 

General Description:

          Archaeoglobus profundus is a sulfate-reducing organism. The organism grows in high temperatures from around 60-95 C°. The pH, it will usually grow in, is around 4.5- 7.5. This extremophile organism from sediments found in a deep sea hydrothermal system is found in the deep sea hot vent areas that could be found in Guaymas, Mexico. Archaeoglobus profundus can only live in environments that are anaerobic, using hydrogen and sulfur to become the energy source for the organism. This organism can be found around 0.7-1.3 µm x 1.4-1.9 µm. Under a UV light microscope, it will be found in a blue-green florescence color, showing the presence of one of the coenzymes it contains called the F420. [33] This organism produces biofilm to protect the organism from the extreme pH and temperature of the conditions around it, including sediments from a deep sea hydrothermal system at Guaymas, Mexico.

            One of the functions of Archaeoglobus profundus is to cause the corrosion of  iron and steel,  by producing iron sulfate. The organism, gets its energy from sulfate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, Archaeoglobus profundus acts as a scavenger to find carbon sources. The carbon sources could derive from fatty acids, degradation of the amino acids, and organic acids. [35] The Archaeoglobus profundus is closely related to the methanogens. These two categories contain similar coenzymes and Archaeoglobus profundus produces small amounts of methane during its growth. This may mean that the genus, Archaeoglobus could be the evolutionary transitional type of the Archaea, branching off the methanogens. It branches off because of the energy making processes that consist of sulfur reduction and because of methanogenesis. This species is different than other species because of a quarter of sequences of genes that are unique and could only be found in that organism. [36]

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