Amoeba Proteus- Chaos Diffluens

Taxonomic Classification:

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Protist

Phylum: Amoeboza

Class: Tubulinea

Order: Tubulinida

Family: Amoebidae

Genus: AmoebaSpecies: A. proteus [37]

Figure 16: Amoeba proteus; Magnification 400x

Why does this organism belong in this Domain?

            The Amoeba proteus or the Chaos Diffluensis is an organism found in the kingdom Protista. This kingdom is one of the four kingdoms found in the Eukarya Domain. The Eukarya Domain organisms are either unicellular or multicellular. Also they receive their energy via sunlight, which the organisms would be classified as photoautotrophs. In addition, protists can receive energy by consuming organic material, which then the organism would be classified as a chemo-heterotroph. The organism is able to reproduce sexually or asexually via binary fission. All Protist organisms are able to be motile by the help of flagella or with the help of pseudopodia, which are cytoplasmic extensions that pull the organism. [4] The Amoeba proteus is a unicellular eukaryote organism.  It can be found in fresh water ponds where there is an abundance of decaying organic material. Also, this organism is a predator to bacteria, protozoa, and algae. When it finds these other organisms, it captures them and then ingests them. [39] Chaos Diffluens produces asexually via binary fission. This is where the cytoplasm pinches in until two new daughter cells are formed. [40] It can take 15 minutes for the organism to split into two. [41] The Chaos Diffluens has pseudopodia which has two functions. One function is to help it move across the surface to the location it wants to go. The other job of the pseudopodia is to help capture and engulf the prey or food the organism has found. It reaches the organic material, and then the pseudopodia wrap around the substance and then brings it to the food vacuole to be ingested. The way this organism solely belongs in this Domain is because the organism is eukaryotic. The Amoeba proteus contains a nucleus and other organelles including a food vacuole. [39] Organelles are only able to be found in eukaryotes. The DNA of prokaryotic cells are found to be circular and eukaryotic cells are found to have linear DNA. [42] Showing a smaller difference between the Domain Eukarya and Domains Bacteria, and Archaea. Therefore, Amoeba proteus would only be able to be classified in the Domain Eukarya.

General Description:

              The Amoeba proteus can be seen  with the naked eye. It can be found living in well oxygenated and clean water. It is found feeding on decaying substances on the bottom of freshwater streams and stagnant ponds. It is seen as a predator to bacteria, smaller protozoa and to algae. The surface must be a solid so it can move by the help of the pseudopodia. The organism will send the pseudopodia to capture and bring  prey it wants to consume, to the food vacuole  to make energy. [39] Inside the food vacuole, enzymes break down the substance to be used in aerobic respiration. [37] The average size of the organism is about 250- 750 µm. The size ranges based on the amount of food it engulfs. The nucleus is found about 35 µm in diameter, and the food vacuole across from the nucleus at about 20 µm. It rapidly changes it shape, like most amoeba do, getting its name from  Greek  meaning to change.  Amoeba proteus contains an inner fluid, called the endoplasm and also an outer layer called the ectoplasm which is thicker and can be referred to as the membrane. [39] Since the Amoeba proteus is a unicellular organism, other substances are able to transport through the membrane by osmosis. Certain chemicals need to be brought into the cell and others need to be brought out like oxygen and carbon dioxide. [40] The Amoeba proteus is also called as the Chaos Diffluens. However, this name is known to all for this organism. Diffluens translates from Latin into English into the word dissipating.  Dissipating means, in simpler English, scattered. So the meaning of this organism is the Chaos isscattered. This is the name of the organism because it is known for its remarkable amount and varied shapes of its pseudopodia. [43]

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